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Sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 7,000 BC.Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 5000 BC.
From around 9500 BC, the eight Neolithic founder crops, emmer and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant.
Rice was domesticated in China between 11,500 and 6,200 BC, followed by mung, soy and azuki beans.
Pigs were domesticated in Mesopotamia around 13,000 BC, followed by sheep between 11,000 and 9,000 BC.
Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and Pakistan around 8,500 BC.
The History of agriculture records the domestication of plants and animals and the development and dissemination of techniques for raising them productively.
Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa.
At least 11 separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin.
Wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 20,000 BC.
After 1492, the Columbian exchange brought New World crops such as maize, potatoes, sweet potatoes and manioc to Europe, and Old World crops such as wheat, barley, rice and turnips, and livestock including horses, cattle, sheep and goats to the Americas.
Irrigation, crop rotation, and fertilizers were introduced soon after the Neolithic Revolution and developed much further in the past 200 years, starting with the British Agricultural Revolution.
Since 1900, agriculture in the developed nations, and to a lesser extent in the developing world, has seen large rises in productivity as human labour has been replaced by mechanization, and assisted by synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and selective breeding.