The human history of Colorado extends back more than 13,000 years.The region that is today the state of Colorado was first inhabited by Native Americans.

Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla declared Mexico's independence from Spain on September 16, 1810.

In 1819, the United States ceded its claim to the land south and west of the Arkansas River to Spain with the Adams-Onís Treaty, at the same time purchasing Florida.

Mexico finally won its independence with the Treaty of Córdoba signed on August 24, 1821, and assumed the territorial claims of Spain.

Juan de Oñate who lived until 1626, founded what would become the Spanish province of Santa Fé de Nuevo Méjico among the pueblos of the Rio Grande on July 11, 1598.

In 1706 Juan de Ulibarri claimed the territory of Colorado.

In 1803 the United States acquired a territorial claim to the eastern flank of the Rocky Mountains by the Louisiana Purchase from France. Army reconnaissance expedition into the disputed region in 1806.

However, the claim conflicted with Spain's claim to sovereignty over the territory. Pike and his men were arrested by Spanish cavalry in the San Luis Valley, taken to Chihuahua, then expelled from México.

Westward expansion brought European settlers to the area and Colorado's recorded history began with treaties and wars with Mexico and Native American nations to gain territorial lands to support the transcontinental migration.

In the early days of the Colorado gold rush, Colorado was a Territory of Kansas and Territory of Jefferson.

On August 1, 1876, Colorado was admitted as a state, maintaining its territorial borders.

The first Europeans to visit the region were Spanish conquistadors.