It accommodates a variety of sources, including esoteric ones less appropriate to the author-date system. If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted.The author-date system has long been used by those in the physical, natural, and social sciences. For books consulted online, list a URL; include an access date only if one is required by your publisher or discipline.

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The Chicago Manual of Style presents two basic documentation systems: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date.

Choosing between the two often depends on subject matter and the nature of sources cited, as each system is favored by different groups of scholars.

The notes and bibliography style is preferred by many in the humanities, including those in literature, history, and the arts.

This style presents bibliographic information in notes and, often, a bibliography.

Aside from the use of notes versus parenthetical references in the text, the two systems share a similar style. Quintus Tullius Cicero, “Handbook on Canvassing for the Consulship,” in Rome: Late Republic and Principate, ed. John Boyer and Julius Kirshner (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986), 35. “Handbook on Canvassing for the Consulship.” In Rome: Late Republic and Principate, edited by Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. A DOI is a permanent ID that, when appended to in the address bar of an Internet browser, will lead to the source. Include an access date only if one is required by your publisher or discipline.

Click on the tabs below to see some common examples of materials cited in each style, including examples of common electronic sources. ”) instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography.

For numerous specific examples, see chapters 14 and 15 of the 16th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style. “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War.” In Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, edited by John D. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

The following examples illustrate citations using the notes and bibliography system. If you consulted the article online, include a URL; include an access date only if your publisher or discipline requires one. David Kamp, “Deconstructing Dinner,” review of The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals, by Michael Pollan, New York Times, April 23, 2006, Sunday Book Review, “Deconstructing Dinner.” Review of The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals, by Michael Pollan.

Examples of notes are followed by shortened versions of citations to the same source. If no author is identified, begin the citation with the article title. Sheryl Gay Stolberg and Robert Pear, “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote,” New York Times, February 27, 2010, accessed February 28, 2010, “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote.” New York Times, February 27, 2010. New York Times, April 23, 2006, Sunday Book Review. Rachel Adelman, “ ‘Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On’: God’s Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition” (paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21–24, 2009). “ ‘Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On’: God’s Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition.” Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21–24, 2009.”). If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted.

For more details and many more examples, see chapter 14 of The Chicago Manual of Style. Kelly, “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War,” in Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, ed. If a more formal citation is desired, it may be styled as in the examples below. For books consulted online, list a URL; include an access date only if one is required by your publisher or discipline. “ ‘Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On’: God’s Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition.” Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21–24.”).

For examples of the same citations using the author-date system, click on the Author-Date tab above. Because such content is subject to change, include an access date or, if available, a date that the site was last modified. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number. If a more formal citation is desired, it may be styled as in the examples below.